Fast-paced urban growth in China has produced a specific, transient form of urban periphery, which continuously shifts outwards as the city expands. Seeing this process as a distinctive type of (sub)urbanization, this paper encapsulates it under the notion of edge-urbanization. The paper argues that edge-urbanization in China is fueled by deliberate government policies, which seek to mobilize peripheral land for high-growth strategies. The relationships between urban expansions and spatial economic policy are analyzed more closely in the case of Tianjin. Geospatial analysis derived from satellite imagery for the period of 1980–2015 reveals the morphological and temporal dynamics of urban growth in the post-reform era. Built-up land in Tianjin has expanded 1.8 times during this period, with the dominant growth type being edge-expansion. This character of urban expansion is shown to be closely associated with government’s “project fever”—setting up development zones and new economic activity on city edge. The results demonstrate a decisive role of the state in shaping (edge) urbanization in China’s major cities.
This chapter examines the role of green spaces in Moscow’s contemporary urban development and interrogates underlying tensions and contradictions. The study finds that Moscow’s new flagship parks form a key arena and infrastructure of neoliberalization – they have developed into new frontiers for commercialisation; they are places where neoliberal-subjects are forged; ‘participatory’ urban development is celebrated and where Moscow’s global competitiveness is negotiated. Yet, the current model is wrought with tensions. In particular, the superficial nature of urban reforms, changes in officially-sanctioned aesthetics as well as deteriorating economic conditions provide context-specific limitations and increasingly challenge Moscow’s current configuration of neoliberal urbanism.
This paper examines territorial practices of enclosure in the Russian land commune. Using archival research, it explores how the state and territory in the periphery were dialectically co-produced through spatial technologies and public discourses. This work brings a territorial dimension into Russian agrarian scholarship by positioning the imperial rural politics within the context of capitalist land enclosure, thereby introducing complexity into the state-centric Western territory debate.
The problem of population decline, economic activity decrease and deterioration of investment attractiveness became topical on the agenda of sustainable development of industrial or single-industry cities in most developed countries (USA, EU, Australia) during the last century. New urban trends are increasing of the economic efficiency of urban areas usage, encouraging restrain of the population, including youth and employable people, and attracting new ones through the creation of required jobs and the formation of comfortable living conditions. All of these demanded the development of mechanisms and tools for the social and economic development of cities. World experience has accumulated various approaches to the transformation of shrinking cities — economic and financial instruments supporting the development and provision of partnership of key stakeholders of cities, integrated urban development programs, tools for optimizing the spatial and territorial structure of cities, etc. The article analyzes the existing practices of application of administrative and organizational mechanisms for the spatial development of shrinking cities in the United States, Britain, Germany, Spain and Australia. Based on the analysis, key conclusions are drawn about the factors that divide the trajectories from decline to the restoration of cities. The practical significance of the conclusions lies in the possibility of using them in the development of strategies and programs for the development of Russian cities, which tend to shrink their economic and territorial space.
This paper identifies education, skills training and improved social infrastructure as key development issues to address population decline in regions of steady out-migration from the Russian Arctic. Migration flows are mostly stabilized after the sharp and unexpectedly large population decline in the Arctic in the 1990s, during the transition to a market economy. However, the trends set in motion during that collapse, including falling general levels of education, declining size of all but the largest cities, and aging of the populace, are deepening in consequence for some regions, even where government resettlement programs exist. As young professionals continue to leave, resettling com-patriates and hiring shift labour may contribute to the vitality of more resilient regions, for example, Krasnoyarsk and Yamalo-Nenets. However, the European part of the Russian Arctic, despite its critical importance to commerce and to military security, and despite assistance programs and subsidies, is conforming more to the aging, less productive contours of neighbouring Artic states on the periphery of Europe.
The article deals with regional diagnostics as a method for studying the socio-economic space of Russia, the quality of the economic space and its regional differences, methods and tools for the sustainable development of regions.
Paradigm Shifts. Patterns and dynamics of innovation processes in urban planning and design.
Through the case study of the paradigm shift from modernist housing estates to compact mixed-use urban neighbourhoods this study investigates how profound novelties enter the discipline of urban planning and design. It neither focuses on the reasons for change (why?) nor on its results (what?), instead it seeks to provide insights on how a novel approach is created, disseminated and established as new routine. It finds that the compact mixed-use city model has been collectively produced and shaped by actors in an intense search for a new consensus in a milieu of heightened uncertainty, and it was successfully spread and established by referring to pressing needs in rather arbitrary ways. The study contributes to basic research in the fields of planning theory and planning history. The object of this research is the transformation in the conceptualization and planning of new housing estates in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Austria from the 1960s until today. The field of housing estates was one of the origins of the paradigm shift under investigation. As the provision of large-scale housing continues to pose a challenge to contemporary policy makers, understanding how novelties enter this field is of high importance.
This paper tests whether the implementation of a key market-oriented reform in post-Soviet Russia, property rights in land, proxied by the percent of privatized land by region, affected the pace of sub-national economic growth during two unprecedented expansion periods: 2001-2008 and 2010-2014. Individuals gained the Constitutional right to own land in 1993, but implementation was stalled. The pace of land privatization can be explained by arguably exogenous factors such as distance to Moscow, as well as climate and also regional political culture, proxied by concentration of votes in the 2004 presidential election. We show that this rate of land privatization in Russia’s regions was significantly associated with output growth in 2010-2014, confirming the policy importance of this measure for developing economies. Regions where private holdings expanded most rapidly with the enforcement of property rights in land, gained a competitive advantage in the growth process through increased investment in fixed assets and private consumption.
Organizing and regulating influence of public authorities on the activity of the population of the region, in order to streamline and reproduce, based on their power force.
In order to understand a country as large and diverse as Russia, it is extremely important to consider spatial patterns of economic development. As Russia looks for new drivers of economic growth, it is important to understand the structural conditions that have defined economic development in Russia’s regions. This report uses the Economic Potential Index (EPI) methodology to identify the conditions that drive regional development. Economic potential is the level of productivity that is possible for a region to achieve given its structural endowments, which are characteristics that are hard to alter in the short run. The methodology used in this report combines quantitative analysis of drivers of productivity across regions with in-depth case studies that focus on the role of regional governments and institutions in converting endowments into economic outcomes. This methodology generates insights that are relevant for both national and regional governments. The first chapter of this report provides an overview of regional development in Russia over the last 25 years and identifies “Russia-specific” national structural conditions that may affect regional development. The second chapter discusses the results of an assessment of economic potential at the regional level and the factors that shape it in Russia. The third chapter focuses on the role of national and regional governance, policy, and institutions in promoting economic development of the regions. The final chapter proposes policy priorities for both regional and national authorities.
⎯The study of the indices of developmental homeostasis in natural populations leads to the definition of the fundamentals of population developmental biology, which is associated with the assessment of the nature of phenotypic diversity and the mechanisms of population dynamics and microevolutionary changes. Characterization of environmental quality based on the assessment of population status by developmental homeostasis determines the fundamentals of the health of environment concept. The use of the ideas of developmental homeostasis and the health of environment in the studies of homeostatic mechanisms of biological systems of different levels (from the organism and population to the community and ecosystem) is promising. This gives new opportunities for understanding the mechanisms that provide sustainability and their ratio at different levels as well as for the characterization of ontogenetic stability significance. The notion of developmental homeostasis, or homeorhesis, is promising for the elaboration of the ecological and biological basics of sustainable development.
A course of action undertaken in a particular region with jurisdiction and powers of public servants to organize the production, placement, and development of productive forces and improvement of ways of involving in economic circulation of resources of the territories, based on national economic interests.
The administration, organization, and planning performed for cities or towns, particularly the process of converting farmland or undeveloped land into offices, businesses, housing, and other forms of development.
A course of action adopted and pursued by government, business, or some other organization, which seeks to improve or develop cities or towns through land use planning, water resource management, central city development, policing and criminal justice, or pollution control.
The study of the indices of developmental homeostasis in natural populations leads to the definition of the fundamentals of population developmental biology, which is associated with the assessment of the nature of phenotypic diversity and the mechanisms of population dynamics and microevolutionary changes. Characterization of environmental quality based on the assessment of population status by developmental homeostasis determines the fundamentals of the health of environment concept. The use of the ideas of developmental homeostasis and the health of environment in the studies of homeostatic mechanisms of biological systems of different levels (from the organism and population to the community and ecosystem) is promising. This gives new opportunities for understanding the mechanisms that provide sustainability and their ratio at different levels as well as for the characterization of ontogenetic stability significance. The notion of developmental homeostasis, or homeorhesis, is promising for the elaboration of the ecological and biological basics of sustainable development.
Subject The article considers the issues related to informatization and digitalization in the Russian regions. Objectives The focus is on a comprehensive study of information technology penetration in Russian regions, state-of-the-art analysis and proposals for further development of informatization. Methods I apply the methods of systems, comparative, logical, and statistical analyses. Results The paper provides objective assessments of the status of regional informatization and prospects for its development. I present an organizational and legal model of informatization in the Russian Federation and the rating of regions based on the assessment of informatization level, using the key performance indicators. I also define urgent problems in the industry and possible solutions. Conclusions When designing a qualitatively new model of socio-economic development of regions, it is crucial to overcome the digital divide, and this should be the major direction on the way to regional informatization in Russia.
Importance This article examines the problems of spatial organization of economy and management of territories of new economic development in Russia and discusses the issues of development and practical application of new organizational and economic solutions and decisions. Objectives The article aims to develop approaches to the management of sustainable development of new economic development areas in the context of the transition to an innovative economy. Methods For the study, we used the methods of comparative and systems analyses, and empirical data on innovative economic development regions of Russia. Conclusions With regard to the areas' economic development, innovative solutions can be implemented in more effective forms of spatial organization of economy and management of regional development, and in modern technologies, expanding opportunities to engage new resources, as well. The article concludes that an integrated approach to the management of territories' sustainable development can be effective. It recommends focusing on harmonious changes in the quality of life and economic activity of the population.